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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: The upper panel shows (a) Normal flow volume loop with expiratory and inspiratory loops (left) (b) In severe restriction, lung volumes are reduced, leading to both decreased expiratory and inspiratory loops (right) Lower panel shows (c) In early ILD with preserved lung volumes, expiratory loop shows characteristic witch hat appearance (left) (d) Severity classification based on forced vital capacity in ILD (right) RV: residual volume, FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second, TLC: Total lung capacity

Figure 2: The upper panel shows (a) Normal flow volume loop with expiratory and inspiratory loops (left) (b) In severe restriction, lung volumes are reduced, leading to both decreased expiratory and inspiratory loops (right) Lower panel shows (c) In early ILD with preserved lung volumes, expiratory loop shows characteristic witch hat appearance (left) (d) Severity classification based on forced vital capacity in ILD (right) RV: residual volume, FEV<sub>1</sub>: forced expiratory volume in one second, TLC: Total lung capacity